Title and statement of responsibility area
General material designation
- Multiple media
Other title information
Title statements of responsibility
Level of description
Edition statement of responsibility
Class of material specific details area
Statement of scale (cartographic)
Statement of projection (cartographic)
Statement of coordinates (cartographic)
Statement of scale (architectural)
Issuing jurisdiction and denomination (philatelic)
Dates of creation area
[between ca.1850 and ca. 1997] (Manufacturing)
Physical description area
162 pieces of photographic viewing equipment : 159 stereoscopes, 4 magic lanterns, 4 projectors. - 843 photographs : 40 transparency reels, 755 stereographs, 28 film reels, 14 stereoscopic colour transparency cards, 6 three-dimensional stickers. - 7 sound recordings : 7 record sound tracks. - 1 textual record : 1 hand written note. 9 drawings ; tracing illustrations
Publisher's series area
Title proper of publisher's series
Parallel titles of publisher's series
Other title information of publisher's series
Statement of responsibility relating to publisher's series
Numbering within publisher's series
Note on publisher's series
Archival description area
Scope and content
Series contains stereoscopic viewers, photographic images, and emphera. This includes a wide range of stereoscopes and three-dimensional viewers. Stereoscopes are devices used to view two mounted identical images as a single three-dimensional photograph commonly referred to as stereographs or stereoviews.
The first lens-based, portable stereoscopes were invented by Sir David Brewster in 1849 and presented at Crystal Palace during the London Great Exhibition between 1850 to 1851. Until a decade later when Oliver Wendell Holmes' adaptation of the Brewster stereoscope became the model for all later editions of stereoviewers during the 19th century. Holmes left his invention unpatented. This allowed other manufactures such as H.C. White, Underwood & Underwood and Keystone Viewing Company to mimic his design and increase production of stereoscopes and stereoviews. Ultimately, Holmes' decision would increase production and purchase of his invention.
Stereoscopes and stereo ephemera were meant for educational and entertainment purposes. Designs ranged from various materials like wood and aluminium, stereoscopes also had a large array of shapes and sizes from hand held to table top.
Following the 20th century, three-dimensional viewers became extremely popular. Some major manufactures such as GAF, Sawyer's View-Master and Tru-View produced iconic viewers made from metal, bakelite and other plastics. Originally, viewers and viewer emphera were developed for educational purposes but eventually became marketed as children's entertainment. Unlike stereoscopic viewers that could only look at single card stereoviews, three-dimensional viewers typically rotated black and white or colour transparency reels or multiview cards. Many original companies such as Sawyer's and GAF merged together but maintained the "View-Master" name. In 1989, the view-master brand was sold to Tycho until 1997 when Mattel and Tyco joined together. Now, view-masters are produced under the Fisher-Price title. View-masters were made from various materials and sizes. Some editions included built-in back lighting and sound recordings.
Immediate source of acquisition
The collection was collected by the late Dr. Martin J. Bass and Gail Silverman Bass and donated to the Ryerson University Library and Archives by Gail Bass in 2018.
Materials have been arranged by type and re-numbered according to GMD format while following a hierarchical numbering system. No determinable arrangement exists for the material and so an intellectual order was imposed. In cases where items are part of a series attempts have been made to arrange them together. Subject terms and notes fields have been used to indicate contextual relationships.
Language of material
Script of material
Location of originals
Availability of other formats
Restrictions on access
Open. Records are available for consultation without restriction.
Terms governing use, reproduction, and publication
Standard number area
Subject access points
- image making equipment » Photographic equipment » photograph viewing equipment » stereoscopes » Stereoviewers (wheel type)
- Sound recordings
- Photographs » stereoscopic photographs » Stereographs
- Photographs » stereoscopic photographs » Stereographs » parallax stereograms
- Processes and Techniques (hierarchy name) » <processes and techniques by specific type> (Processes and Techniques (hierarchy name)) » <transferring and transferring techniques> (<processes and techniques by specific type>, Processes and Techniques (hierarchy name)) » tracing (technique) (transferring techniques, <transferring and transferring techniques>, ... Processes and Techniques (hierarchy name))
- image making equipment » Photographic equipment » photograph viewing equipment » stereoscopes
Place access points
Name access points
Genre access points
Description record identifier
Rules or conventions
Level of detail
Dates of creation, revision and deletion
Language of description
Script of description
Darrah, C. William. (1977). The World Of Stereographs. Gettysburg Pennsylvania: W.C. Darrah
The J. Paul Getty Trust. (2004). Gerry Union List of Artist Names Online. The Getty Research Institute. Retrieved from http://www.getty.edu/vow/AATFullDisplay?find=stereoscopes&logic=AND¬e=&english=N&prev_page=1&subjectid=300162919
Wing, Paul (1996) Stereoscopes: The First One Hundred Years. Nashua, New Hampshire: Transition Publishing.