Photography--Plates

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Photography--Plates

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Photography--Plates

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Photography--Plates

13 Archival description results for Photography--Plates

13 results directly related Exclude narrower terms

Field cameras

This series contains view cameras whose lighter and more compact design, as compared to larger, studio style cameras, allowed for them to be easily transported for use in outdoor settings and for travelling. Alterations like collapsible bellows (folding into either the back of the camera, the front or both), smaller lenses, and folding bodies allowed for the camera to be collapsed for easier movement. The advent of pre-prepared photographic dry plates (and later sheet film). further facilitated landscape and other outdoor photography.

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Box and snapshot roll film cameras

Series contains simple, snapshot cameras designed for mass public consumption, taking advantage of the new flexible roll film that was developed in 1883. The box camera was a logical follow up from the original simple camera obscuras, often having only one shutter speed, simple lenses with minimal f-stop capabilities and manual winds.

The trend arguably began with George Eastman's in 1888 with the first, amateur, handheld camera, "The Kodak", which came pre-loaded with 100 exposures. After exposure, the entire outfit was returned to the Eastman Kodak company, where the film was developed, prints made and sent back to the customer with the camera, now re-loaded with more film.

Many millions of similar cameras were sold, both high and low end, manufactured by different companies and eventually developing into the modern point-and-shoot camera.

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Detective cameras

Items in this series are photographic devices designed to be inconspicuous, intended for photographers to make candid exposures without the subject being aware. The first detective cameras appeared with the production of commercially available dry plates and designs were simple box camera style constructions. These were, in fact, very similar to standard cameras of the time, but were smaller, handheld and able to make exposures relatively quickly. As smaller, flexible film materials became available, these cameras began to be produced disguised as objects such as pocket watches, ties, books, hats, pens and walking sticks.

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Scovill & Adams Company

Panoramic cameras

Series contains cameras designed to take wide-angle photographs (images that are least twice as wide as they are tall). Cameras of this nature began to be produced soon after photography was invented, as photographers have always wanted to capture large group portraits, landscape views and skylines. Panoramic photographs are achieved by stitching several exposures together to create one image or with purpose built cameras of several designed, including banquet (similar to standard cameras with wider aspect ratios, designed to take photographs of large groups indoors), short rotation (uses a curved film plane, swinging lens and split shutter that the lens rotates around), and full or long rotation (capable of producing 360 degree views by rotating the camera and film past the shutter).

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Professional and press cameras

Series contains cameras designed to fulfill specific, professional functions such as surveying, aerial photography, studio portraits and press work. These cameras are often the best items in the manufacturers line, offering more features and a sturdier construction than their amateur counterparts.

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Stereoscopic and multi lens cameras

Series contains cameras that have with more than one lens, to create multiple images on the same light sensitive film or plate. These cameras were designed for several purposes, the most popular being the stereoscopic, or three-dimensional, image. Most stereo cameras work by taking two simultaneous images from slightly varying points of view that correspond to the distance between the human eyes. The images are then mounted side-by-side and viewed through a stereoscope (a system of two lenses that helps to converge the two photographs, to mimic the depth perception of binocular vision). Other three-dimensional cameras used four or more lenses to create images for lenticular prints.
Some multi-lens cameras were intended to create multiple copies of the same scene at one time, such as the gem tintype camera and passport camera, while others had shutters that took sequential shots to create images which show the passage of time on one frame.

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Twin lens reflex cameras

Series contains cameras designed with two identical lenses, mounted one above the other, for composition and the other for exposure. The twin-lens design allows the photographer a continuous view of the subject while photographing, as the 45 degree angled mirror is mounted to the viewing lens only and therefore does not have to list out of the way during exposure, as in single lens reflex designs. Most designs used a waist level viewfinder with a ground glass.

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Point and shoot cameras

Series contains mainly inexpensive, fully automatic 35 mm cameras marketed strictly for amateur use. These cameras are the high tech descendants of the box camera and most models have no manual control over focus, aperture, shutter speed, film winding or metering. The viewfinder on point and shoot models is, like the box camera and unlike reflex style cameras, not integrated with the lens; there is no mirror directing the view from the lens to the eye of the photographer. Most of the point and shoot cameras require batteries for operation.

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One-time use cameras

Series contains cameras designed to be disposable. Usually simple, point and shoot cameras made of plastic cases with cardboard housings, these cameras were sold pre-loaded with film and returned to the photofinisher in tact for development. The plastic bodies were often returned to the manufacturer and re-used, with film and housing. Cameras such as this were marketed for travel, weddings, underwater or other situations where a more expensive camera may get damaged. They were available in different film speeds and some models included a flash.

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Dry plate cameras

This series contains cameras designed for use with commercially manufactured dry plate negatives. Produced between about 1880 and 1900, these cameras began to be marketed to amateur photographers due to the relative ease of using dry plates. Exposure times shortened, necessitating faster shutters, within the lens or camera. The equipment also became more compact, allowing for hand-held photographs.

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Toy and promotional cameras

Series contains cameras designed for children or created and distributed as marketing materials for different corporations. These cameras became most popular after the advent of film cartridges, as this greatly simplified the handling and lowered the cost. These cameras are predominantly inexpensive and simply designed, without features that allow the photographer to change aperture or shutter speed.

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35mm cameras

Series contains cameras designed for use with standard 35mm (135 format) film. This became the most popular film and camera format, both among professionals and amateurs. Sturdy and multi-functional, with interchangeable lenses, these cameras found their way into civil wars, riots, and natural disasters around the necks of daring photojournalists as well as in homes and on vacation with advanced amateurs and photo-enthusiasts. Once exposed, the film was wound conveniently back into light-tight metal canisters that would protect the film until it could be developed.

For 35mm cameras marketed specifically to amateur photographers, see items in the Point-and-Shoot series.

To browse the individual items in this series, click on the "View the list" link under the "File and item records are available for this series" title (to the right of the page).