Photography--History

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Code

http://id.loc.gov/authorities/subjects/sh2008109260

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  • Library of Congress Subject Headings

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Hierarchical terms

Photography--History

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Photography--History

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Photography--History

269 Archival description results for Photography--History

269 results directly related Exclude narrower terms

Exhibitions, 2004

Series contains pamphlets, press releases, invitations, and publications for photographic exhibitions in museums, galleries, festivals, publishers and universities in the United States and some abroad, during 2004. Venues include:

5004 Feagan Studios, Houston
AIPAD, New YOrk
Anya Tish Gallery, Houston
Aperture, New York
Arthur Meyerson studio/gallery, Houston
Asia Society, Houston
Corcoran Gallery, Washington
Daniel Cooney Fine Art, New York
Fotofest, Houston
George Eastman House, Rochester
Gregory Lind Gallery, San Francisco
Houston Centre for Photography
Internaitonal Centre of Photography, New York
Koelsch Gallery, Houston
Mackey Gallery, Houston
Magnum, New York
Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago
Museum of Fine Arts, Houston
Museum of the City of New York
Nailya Alexander Gallery, New York
Public Art Fund, New York
Redbud Gallery, Houston
Rizarios Exhibition Centre, Monodendri Greece
San Francisco Museum of Modern Art
Whitney Biennial, New York

Nordström, Alison

Gardner's Art Through the Ages

Series contains images to accompany Gardner's Art Through the Ages, 12th edition. Topics include sculpture, architecture, painting, and photgoraphy from ancient to modern. Slides are housed in 2 binders, with index included.

Saskia Cultural Documentation

Early Canadian Photography

File contains 35mm slides produced from original objects and books belonging to the Ryerson Image Centre, focusing on the items in their collection produced by Canadian photographers in the latter half of the 19th century. Photographers include; B.F. Baltzley, George Barker, R. Bell, Ernest Brown, F.G. Clauded, F. Dally, G.M. Dawson, Edward Dossetter, D.B. Dowling, Dunmore & Criterson, Elliston & Co., W. England, Erwing & Co., Faribault, A. Henderson, H.L. Hime (Armstrong, Beere & Hime), Charles Horetzky, J. INglis, Ryder Larson, William Augustus Leggo, Livernois & Bienveau, J.W. Lowe, A.P. Low, R. Maynard, R.G. McLaughlin, J.G. Parks, Capt. Jason Peters, J. Richardson, G.P. Roberts, Alexander Ross, A.R.C. Selwyn, Stiff Brothers, L.G. Swain, W.J. Topley, J. Turner, J.B. Tyrell, J.P. Vallee, T.C. Weston, William Williamson.

Ryerson Image Centre

Canadian Perspectives exhibition and photographer slides

File contains about 600 colour slides taken during the exhibition held in the Image Arts building during the Canadian Perspectives Conference on Canadian photography, as well as images of artwork by Canadian photographers presenting and discussed during the conference. Artists include: Marion P. Bancroft, Marguerite Bell, Robert Bourdeau, Randy Bradley, Jim Breukelman, David Bruce, Lynn Cohen, Share Corsaut, William Cupit, Charles Gagnon, Tom GIbson, Peter Gross, Thaddeus Hollowina, Stephen Homer, Tom Knott, Clayton Lewis, David MacMIllan, L. McClair, Dale Pickering, Tim Porter, Tom Robertson, Michael Semak, Ken Straiton, John Wertscheck, Gabor Szilasi, Ronnie Tessler, Robert Title, and Jim Tomlinson.

Image Arts

Early cameras

This series consists of original and duplicate early cameras from the beginning of the history of photography. Based on the basic design of the camera obscura and produced between about 1820 and 1870, these simple devices were usually solid or sliding box cameras with uncomplicated lenses. The shutter was normally outside of the lens, in the form of a lens cap that was simple removed and replaced for exposure, or a rotating metal plate on the front of the lens, which held the aperture. These cameras mainly predated dry plate and flexible film photography, and were used to take Daguerreotype, wet-plate and salted paper photographs.

To browse the individual items in this series, click on the "View the list" link under the "File and item records are available for this series" title (to the right of the page).

Field cameras

This series contains view cameras whose lighter and more compact design, as compared to larger, studio style cameras, allowed for them to be easily transported for use in outdoor settings and for travelling. Alterations like collapsible bellows (folding into either the back of the camera, the front or both), smaller lenses, and folding bodies allowed for the camera to be collapsed for easier movement. The advent of pre-prepared photographic dry plates (and later sheet film). further facilitated landscape and other outdoor photography.

To browse the individual items in this series, click on the "View the list" link under the "File and item records are available for this series" title (to the right of the page).

Box and snapshot roll film cameras

Series contains simple, snapshot cameras designed for mass public consumption, taking advantage of the new flexible roll film that was developed in 1883. The box camera was a logical follow up from the original simple camera obscuras, often having only one shutter speed, simple lenses with minimal f-stop capabilities and manual winds.

The trend arguably began with George Eastman's in 1888 with the first, amateur, handheld camera, "The Kodak", which came pre-loaded with 100 exposures. After exposure, the entire outfit was returned to the Eastman Kodak company, where the film was developed, prints made and sent back to the customer with the camera, now re-loaded with more film.

Many millions of similar cameras were sold, both high and low end, manufactured by different companies and eventually developing into the modern point-and-shoot camera.

To browse the individual items in this series, click on the "View the list" link under the "File and item records are available for this series" title (to the right of the page).

Detective cameras

Items in this series are photographic devices designed to be inconspicuous, intended for photographers to make candid exposures without the subject being aware. The first detective cameras appeared with the production of commercially available dry plates and designs were simple box camera style constructions. These were, in fact, very similar to standard cameras of the time, but were smaller, handheld and able to make exposures relatively quickly. As smaller, flexible film materials became available, these cameras began to be produced disguised as objects such as pocket watches, ties, books, hats, pens and walking sticks.

To browse the individual items in this series, click on the "View the list" link under the "File and item records are available for this series" title (to the right of the page).

Scovill & Adams Company

Panoramic cameras

Series contains cameras designed to take wide-angle photographs (images that are least twice as wide as they are tall). Cameras of this nature began to be produced soon after photography was invented, as photographers have always wanted to capture large group portraits, landscape views and skylines. Panoramic photographs are achieved by stitching several exposures together to create one image or with purpose built cameras of several designed, including banquet (similar to standard cameras with wider aspect ratios, designed to take photographs of large groups indoors), short rotation (uses a curved film plane, swinging lens and split shutter that the lens rotates around), and full or long rotation (capable of producing 360 degree views by rotating the camera and film past the shutter).

To browse the individual items in this series, click on the "View the list" link under the "File and item records are available for this series" title (to the right of the page).

Miniature and sub-miniature cameras

This series contains cameras designed to take photographs on flexible film sized smaller than 135 format film (24mm x 36mm). The size of the camera also tended to be very small, and often simply designed. While several companies manufactured high quality miniature cameras (including Minox and Rollei), many others were cheaply made and did not produce relatively poor results.

Film formats for miniature cameras were often priority, created by manufactures for their cameras specifically, and included the following sizes: 10mm x 14xx (16mm film), 13mm x 17mm film (110 film cartridges), 14mm x 14mm (used by "Hit" type cameras), 8mm x 11mm cartridge roll film (Minox), 11mm x 8mm disc film (Kodak).

Miniature cameras gained a reputation as "spy" cameras, and while some of the higher quality ones (including the Minox) were used by government agencies, most were simply for surreptitious, amateur use.

To browse the individual items in this series, click on the "View the list" link under the "File and item records are available for this series" title (to the right of the page).

Professional and press cameras

Series contains cameras designed to fulfill specific, professional functions such as surveying, aerial photography, studio portraits and press work. These cameras are often the best items in the manufacturers line, offering more features and a sturdier construction than their amateur counterparts.

To browse the individual items in this series, click on the "View the list" link under the "File and item records are available for this series" title (to the right of the page).

Stereoscopic and multi lens cameras

Series contains cameras that have with more than one lens, to create multiple images on the same light sensitive film or plate. These cameras were designed for several purposes, the most popular being the stereoscopic, or three-dimensional, image. Most stereo cameras work by taking two simultaneous images from slightly varying points of view that correspond to the distance between the human eyes. The images are then mounted side-by-side and viewed through a stereoscope (a system of two lenses that helps to converge the two photographs, to mimic the depth perception of binocular vision). Other three-dimensional cameras used four or more lenses to create images for lenticular prints.
Some multi-lens cameras were intended to create multiple copies of the same scene at one time, such as the gem tintype camera and passport camera, while others had shutters that took sequential shots to create images which show the passage of time on one frame.

To browse the individual items in this series, click on the "View the list" link under the "File and item records are available for this series" title (to the right of the page).

Single lens reflex cameras

Series contains single lens reflex, or simply reflex, cameras. This deign used a mirror at a 45 degree angle to allow the photographer to look through the lens when composing the photograph, therefore seeing exactly what will appear on the film. Brilliant and sports style viewfinders only alllowed an approximation of the image alignment.

To browse the individual items in this series, click on the "View the list" link under the "File and item records are available for this series" title (to the right of the page).

Asahi Pentax 6 x 7

Item is a professional medium format single lens reflex camera for 6 x 7 cm images on 120 or 220 roll film. This camera has a design similar to a 35mm camera with interchangeable Takumar lenses and range finders. It has a Penta Prism viewfinder, a wooden handle and a Takumar 6 x 7 1 :3.5 55 mm wide angle lens.

Twin lens reflex cameras

Series contains cameras designed with two identical lenses, mounted one above the other, for composition and the other for exposure. The twin-lens design allows the photographer a continuous view of the subject while photographing, as the 45 degree angled mirror is mounted to the viewing lens only and therefore does not have to list out of the way during exposure, as in single lens reflex designs. Most designs used a waist level viewfinder with a ground glass.

To browse the individual items in this series, click on the "View the list" link under the "File and item records are available for this series" title (to the right of the page).

In-camera processing (instant) cameras

Series consists of cameras that combine exposure and development in one step to create photographs instantaneously.
While Polaroid is by far the most well known of these cameras, the first patent for instant photography was for the Dubroni, a French wet plate camera, designed so that the glass plate could be sensitized and developed by pouring the chemicals over the plate through a tube in the camera. Later cameras were developed so small tintypes (1895) and direct paper positives (1913) could be made quickly for tourists on busy streets.
But it was the Polaroid Corporation that made instant photography a household item, beginning in 1937 when Edwin Land's young daughter's desire to see her photograph immediately, inspired him to develop the Polaroid's first instant camera: the Land Camera.

The Heritage Collection also contains Kodak Instant Cameras; produced in the late 1970's, they spawned a patent infringement lawsuit from the Polaroid corporation that resulted in the recall all of instant Kodak models sold and the discontinuation of their production.

To browse the individual items in this series, click on the "View the list" link under the "File and item records are available for this series" title (to the right of the page).

Source: <a href="http://www.shutterbug.com/content/it%E2%80%99s-instant%E2%80%94-it%E2%80%99s-not-polaroid-pre-and-post-polaroids-1864-1976">Wade, John. "It's Instant - But It's Not Polaroid: Pre- And-PostPolaroids, From 1864 to 1976." Shutterbug : Published May 1, 2012.</a>

Point and shoot cameras

Series contains mainly inexpensive, fully automatic 35 mm cameras marketed strictly for amateur use. These cameras are the high tech descendants of the box camera and most models have no manual control over focus, aperture, shutter speed, film winding or metering. The viewfinder on point and shoot models is, like the box camera and unlike reflex style cameras, not integrated with the lens; there is no mirror directing the view from the lens to the eye of the photographer. Most of the point and shoot cameras require batteries for operation.

To browse the individual items in this series, click on the "View the list" link under the "File and item records are available for this series" title (to the right of the page).

One-time use cameras

Series contains cameras designed to be disposable. Usually simple, point and shoot cameras made of plastic cases with cardboard housings, these cameras were sold pre-loaded with film and returned to the photofinisher in tact for development. The plastic bodies were often returned to the manufacturer and re-used, with film and housing. Cameras such as this were marketed for travel, weddings, underwater or other situations where a more expensive camera may get damaged. They were available in different film speeds and some models included a flash.

To browse the individual items in this series, click on the "View the list" link under the "File and item records are available for this series" title (to the right of the page).

Video cameras

Series contains hand-held, shoulder-mounted, or structurally-attached cameras that use electronic components to record moving images and sound. Most items in this series are for home use. For cameras that record moving images using digital components, see the Digital and Pre-digital cameras series.

To browse the individual items in this series, click on the "View the list" link under the "File and item records are available for this series" title (to the right of the page).

Weisblatt, Betty

Sawyer's 3D view master

Item is a handheld view master manufactured by Swayer's Inc first introduced at the New York World Fair (1939-1940). Reel has 7 diametrical, 16 mm colour transparencies of Hollywood, California landmarks. The lever on the side of the viewer will rotate the reel one frame at a time once pressed. Originally this item was meant as an educational tool for adults but quickly became a popular children's toy. Item is made of plastic and metal. Reels are interchangeable and come with a variety of themes.

Electric view master stereoscope (model D)

Item is a brown handheld electric view master first manufactured by Swayer's Inc and first introduced at the New York World Fair (1939-1940). Once pressed down the lever on the side of the viewer will rotate the reel one frame at a time once pressed. Unlike previous view masters, this view master comes with a built in back light attached to an electrical cord. Once turned on the back light illuminates transparencies on view. Item is made of plastic and metal. Reel has 7 diametrical, 16 mm colour transparencies of The Atlas of Human Anatomy, Head and Neck.

Mercury stereoscope viewer (H.C. White Co.)

This item is a handheld metal and wood Holmes style stereoscope. The metal viewer has flower and leaf details engraved with fabric lining the metal eyepiece. This object was used to view two nearly identical images, or stereographs, as one three-dimensional photograph. The mercury stereoscope was manufactured by H.C. White Company, a main manufacturer of Holmes style stereoscopes. White obtained several patents for his high quality stereographs and stereoscopes. In 1907, White made the most mechanized stereo publishing facility in the world. The entire photo printing process was automatic to ensure a uniform standard. The H.C. White company produced three standard stereoscopes: wood, wood and metal, and all metal.

1-2-3D instant stereo

This item is a plastic black stereo adaptor designed for Robins Industries Corporation's J-33 and J-66 Polaroid cameras. This object also contains the "2 for 1" film saver device. Item comes in its original box with its original manual. Item was intended to capture two identical images from a Robins Polaroid camera to be viewed through the stereo adaptor and create the impression of a three-dimensional image.

Perfecscope viewer

Item is a Holmes style handheld stereoscope manufactured by H.C.White Company. Item is made of aluminium and wood with velvet around the viewer hood. The viewer is adorned with floral engraving. Slide holding the card is removable and adjustable to user's vision. Handle folds onto viewer. This item was used to view stereographs. "Exposition-Universelle Internationale, 1900" is branded on top of the viewer hood. Written on item: USA patent Oct.15.1895, June 3.1902; FEBY.1.1898 B.S.G.D.G. Great Britain, Austria, Belgium; Canada, France, Germany DRMG NO.53803; Patent July 24 1883. H.C. White Company was a main manufacturer of Holmes style stereoscopes. White obtained several patents for his high quality stereographs and stereoscopes. In 1907, White made the most mechanized stereo publishing facility in the world. The entire photo printing process was automatic to ensure a uniform standard. The H.C. White company produced three standard stereoscopes: wood, wood and metal, and all metal.

Fairchild stereoscope binocular model F-17

This item is a metal stereoscope binocular viewer with extendable legs and mirrored sides. This object was used to view aerial photographs and survey maps of land. In the 1920's Fairchild Aviation became the second-largest manufacturer of commercial air planes and fourth largest aviation organization in the United States of America. Written on item: "No. 40-1749."

Stereo-graphoscope viewer

This item is a handheld stereoscope made entirely of wood and has binocular style adjustable lenses. Handle folds onto viewer. Written on bottom of viewer: USA. APR. 23; 1889. OCT.15.1895; CANADA FEB.1996; FRANCE B.S.G.D.G; GREAT BRITAIN, GERMANY, AUSTRIA, AND BELGIUM."

Red velvet hand-held stereoscopic viewer

Item is a wood and metal hand-held stereoscope with a red velvet viewer. This object was used to view two nearly identical photographs, or stereographs, as one three dimensional image. The stereograph would be placed in the sliding card holder and adjusted to fit the user's vision until the two images overlap to mimic a three-dimensional effect.

Wooden Holmes style hand-held viewer

This item is a hand held Holmes style stereoscope. This item is entirely made of wood and has a binocular-like viewer. Handle folds back onto viewer. This object was used to view two nearly identical photographs, or stereographs, as one three dimensional image. The stereograph would be placed in the sliding card holder and adjusted to fit the user's vision until the two images overlap to mimic a three-dimensional effect.

Monarch stereoscope viewer

This item is a hand held stereoscope made of wood and aluminium. The hood of the viewer is adorned with a floral engraving and a seal of a deer. The viewer is lined with velvet. The handle is able to bend back onto the viewer. This object was used to view two nearly identical photographs, or stereographs, as one three dimensional image. The stereograph would be placed in the sliding card holder and adjusted to fit the user's vision until the two images overlap to mimic a three-dimensional effect. The hood is designed to keep out additional light.

Written on object: "Manufactured Keystone View Co. Meadville, PA. Patented 1904"

Wooden hand held viewer with ornate edge (unknown)

Item is a wooden hand-held stereoscope with an ornate details around the viewer hood. Handle folds down onto viewer. This object was used to view two nearly identical photographs, or stereographs, as one three dimensional image. The stereograph would be placed in the sliding card holder and adjusted to fit the user's vision until the two images overlap to mimic a three-dimensional effect.

Wooden hand held stereoscope viewer (unknown)

Item is a handheld wooden stereoscope viewer. Card slide can bend to become more compact. This object was used to view two nearly identical photographs, or stereographs, as one three dimensional image. The stereograph would be placed in the sliding card holder and adjusted to fit the user's vision until the two images overlap to mimic a three-dimensional effect.

Sun sculpture stereoscope viewer (Underwood & Underwood)

This item is a aluminium and wood hand held Holmes style stereoscope manufactured by Underwood & Underwood. Viewer hood is made of aluminium and lined with velvet. On top of the hood is a Underwood & Underwood brand between leaf detailing. Handle can fold back onto viewer. This object was used to view two nearly identical photographs, or stereographs, as one three dimensional image. The stereograph would be placed in the sliding card holder and adjusted to fit the user's vision until the two images overlap to mimic a three-dimensional effect.

Written on object: manufactured by Underwood & Underwood New York Patented June 11, 1901 Foreign Patents Applied For.

Metal hand held stereoscopic viewer

Item is a hand held metal stereoscope with a wooden handle. Viewer is lined with velvet. Hood of viewer is engraved with leaf design and branded with the TR trademark. Handle is able to bend back onto viewer.This object was used to view two nearly identical photographs, or stereographs, as one three dimensional image. The stereograph would be placed in the sliding card holder and adjusted to fit the user's vision until the two images overlap to mimic a three-dimensional effect.

Sculptscope viewer (Whiting)

This item is a large metal circular shaped stereoscope with glass flower designs on the sides. This coin operated stereoscope activates a mechanism that turns a metal belt containing built in stereographs. Richard R. Whiting formed the American Novelty Company in Cincinnati, Ohio. Whiting developed and sold stereoscopes from the 1880s till the mid-1900s. He manufactured the sculptoscope in 1925. The sculptoscope was commonly seen in arcades and cigar shops. This object was used to view two nearly identical photographs, or stereographs, as one three dimensional image. The stereograph would be placed in the card holder then users would look through the lenses hood which would overlap the two images to mimic a three-dimensional effect. The sculptoscope uses a simple trigger for actuation. The counterweight cylindrical foot in front the viewer holds it in a comfortable viewing position and acts as a coin box. The top of the viewer has a plain glass window to illuminate the stereoviews and allow the user to look at the back of the previous card. A penny releases a set of 15 views to be show.

Patent # 1, 436, 742 (November 28, 1922).

Whiting, Richard R.

Kodaslide stereo viewer I

Item is a plastic and metal stereo viewer used to observe reels of Kodak colour three-dimensional transparencies. Knob on the side switches transparencies.

Written on box: "Focus and interocular adjustments, takes all standard stereo mounts, operates anywhere-converts to 110-volt"

Wooden hand held stereoscope viewer (unknown)

Item is a wooden handheld Holmes style stereoscope. Handle bends back onto viewer. Hood of viewer is lined with red velvet. This object was used to view two nearly identical photographs, or stereographs, as one three dimensional image. The stereograph would be placed in the sliding card holder and adjusted to fit the user's vision until the two images overlap to mimic a three-dimensional effect.

Sawyer's lighted view master (model F)

Item is a brown Sawyer's View-Master with a internal light meant to illuminate the backs of transparencies. Item comes with 1reel of 7 diametrical, 16 mm colour transparencies showing famous global landmarks and world events. White push down lever on the right side rotates reel to next slide.

Sun sculpture hand held stereoscope viewer (Underwood & Underwood)

Item is a hand held Holmes style stereoscope made of wood and aluminium. Viewer hood is lined with velvet and engraved with a leaf pattern. Handle folds onto viewer. This object was used to view two nearly identical photographs, or stereographs, as one three dimensional image. The stereograph would be placed in the sliding card holder and adjusted to fit the user's vision until the two images have overlapped to mimic a three-dimensional effect.

Written on object: Warranted Underwood & Underwood Manufacturers New York Patent Applied For.

Wooden hand held stereoscope viewer (Underwood & Underwood)

Item is a wooden hand held Holmes style stereoscope. Handle is able to bend back onto the viewer. This object was used to view two nearly identical photographs, or stereographs, as one three dimensional image. The stereograph would be placed in the sliding card holder and adjusted to fit the user's vision until the two images have overlapped to mimic a three-dimensional effect.

Written on object : Underwood & Underwood New York. Written in viewer hood : Pat. Applied For.

Red and white view master (GAF)

Item is a red and white view master with a blue lever on the right side designed to switch transparencies on the reel. Item comes with one GAF reel of 7 diametrical, 16 mm colour transparencies depicting a episode from the TV show "Happy Days." Reels are interchangeable. Written on object: Made in USA GAF corporation Portland, Oregon T.M.REG. US.Pat.OFF. MARC REG.-MARQUE DEPOSEE

Sun sculpture hand held stereoscope viewer (Underwood & Underwood)

Item is a hand held wooden stereoscope manufactured by Underwood & Underwood. Viewer hood is made of aluminium and is adorned with floral engravings. Handle folds back onto viewer and card slider can be adjusted. Written on top of item : Sun Sculpture U&U trademark. Written on handle : Man'f'd by Underwood & Underwood, New York, June 11, 1901, Foreign Patent Applied For. This object was used to view two nearly identical photographs, or stereographs, as one three dimensional image. The stereograph would be placed in the sliding card holder and adjusted to fit the user's vision until the two images have overlapped to mimic a three-dimensional effect.

Micky mouse view master 3-D

Item is a plastic view master manufactured by View-Master and built in the shape of Disney character Mickey Mouse. Item is in original packaging and comes with promotional l three-dimensional reel of colour Disney scenes featuring Mickey Mouse and friends. Push down lever on the right is used to rotate reel. Reels are interchangeable. Item is designed as a child’s toy.

Sun sculpture hand held stereoscope viewer (Underwood & Underwood)

Item is a hand held wooden stereoscope manufactured by Underwood & Underwood. Viewer hood is made of aluminium, lined with velvet and adorned with floral engravings. Handle folds back onto viewer and card slider can be adjusted. Written on top of item : Sun Sculpture U&U trademark. This object was used to view two nearly identical photographs, or stereographs, as one three dimensional image. The stereograph would be placed in the sliding card holder and adjusted to fit the user's vision until the two images have overlapped to mimic a three-dimensional effect.

Written on handle : Man'f'd by Underwood & Underwood, New York, June 11, 1901, Foreign Patent Applied For. Written on Hood : BASS.

Hand held accordion fold stereoscope viewer

Item is a hand-held wooden viewer, base and handle attached to a metal accordion fold. Handle is able to bend back onto viewer. This sterescope was built with a card holder and hood to protect eyes from additional light that could disrupt the image.

Written on object : Patented Jul 5. 1870 & Mar.26.1878.

Dry plate cameras

This series contains cameras designed for use with commercially manufactured dry plate negatives. Produced between about 1880 and 1900, these cameras began to be marketed to amateur photographers due to the relative ease of using dry plates. Exposure times shortened, necessitating faster shutters, within the lens or camera. The equipment also became more compact, allowing for hand-held photographs.

To browse the individual items in this series, click on the "View the list" link under the "File and item records are available for this series" title (to the right of the page).

Motion-picture viewers

Series contains cameras that use film to capture moving images for display. While still image cameras expose one image at a time on photographic film, motion picture cameras take a series of images (or frames) on long strips of film that are then played back using a projector. The speed at which the film is projected matches that which it was taken, a speed (or frame rate) of 24 frames per second was long the standard in the motion picture industry, and is enough to appear to the human eye as motion and not simply a string of still images. Most of the cameras in this series are for amateur or "home movie" use.

To browse the individual items in this series, click on the "View the list" link under the "File and item records are available for this series" title (to the right of the page).

Digital and pre-digital cameras

Series contains cameras that are designed to capture images using sensors and digital storage media instead of film, as well as pre-digital cameras that combined digital technology with film.
The digital camera replaced the traditional film camera in all but a few niche markets very quickly; as of the beginning of the 21st century, all amateur and most professional photogrpahy now takes place in the digital format. These early cameras track the rapid increase of image quality and camera optinos avilable to the consumer.

To browse the individual items in this series, click on the "View the list" link under the "File and item records are available for this series" title (to the right of the page).

3D binocular viewfinder camera (Coronet)

Item is a plastic stereo camera typically found through mail order catalogues. For 4.5 x 5 cm exposures on 127 mm roll film. Shutter speed 1/50. Twin f11 menscus fixed focal lenses. Lens are labelled as 1 and 2. Written on item: Bioncular viewfinder patents applied for, coronet 3-D, present use 127 film, to take 8 picture close cover blase over No.1 lens make exposures on every number from 1 to 8, to take 4 pairs stereo picture open cover blase over no.1 lens. make exposures only on odd numbers (1, 3, 5 and 7), use no. 127 roll film.

3D binocular viewfinder camera (Coronet)

Item is a plastic three-dimensional stereo camera with binocular viewfinder. This item makes 4 stereo pairs or 8 single images, exposure is 4.5 x 5 cm on 127 mm roll film. The single shutter-speed is 1/50, twin f11 meniscus fixed-focus lenses, lenses are separated by 53 mm. Instructions on how to use the camera on labelled on the back of the object by manufacturer. Item has simple uncoated lenses with flash contacts on the right side.

Tru-Vue viewer box set (Tru-Vue company)

Item is a brown plastic 3D viewer built with a push-down lever between the lenses. The lever is designed to rotate a reel containing three-dimensional black and white 35 mm acetate film manufactured by Tru-Vue Company. Images are inserted through the slot on the left side of the lenses. Item comes with square plastic windows to illuminate backs of transparencies on view. Once the film is circulated, it rewinds itself on the right-hand side of the viewer. Item comes in original box with 4 original films depicting the Grand Canyon's major landmarks.

Written on object : Tru-View Rock Island, Ill. U S PAT. 90564 Made in U.S.A. Written on box : Fifty-Six Scenes Of The Grand Canyon Of Arizona In Three Dimensional Photography.

Kodaslide stereo viewer I

Item is a plastic and metal 3D viewer used to observe reels of Kodak colour three-dimensional transparencies. Knob on the side switches transparencies. Item comes in original box.

Written on box: " For life-like pictures in 3 dimensions. Focus and interocular adjustments, takes all standard stereo mounts, operates anywhere-converts to 110-volt"

Red bubble shaped stereoscopic View-Master

This item is a red bubble shaped view master used as a child's toy. This object has one reel of 7 diametrical, 16 mm colour transparencies showing famous Americans from the early 20th century. Including John D. Rockafeller and President Theodore Roosevelt. The push down lever on the side of the viewer will rotate the reel one frame at a time.

View-Master

Item is a handheld view master manufactured by Swayer's Inc and first introduced at the New York World Fair (1939-1940). Item is made of plastic and metal. Reel of 7 diametrical, 16 mm colour transparencies of famous landmarks in British Columbia, Canada. The lever on the side of the viewer will rotate the reel one frame at a time once pressed. Reels are interchangeable and come with a variety of themes.

GAF View-Master

Item is a handheld plastic view master containing a reel of 7 diametrical, 16 mm colour transparencies of Old Covered Bridges, New England. It was manufactured by GAF, Corporation in Portland, Oregon, USA. The lever on the side of the viewer will rotate the reel one frame at a time once pressed. Item is made of plastic and metal. Reels are interchangeable and come with a variety of themes.

Sawyer's View-Master projector

Item is an olive electric view master projector manufactured by Swayer's Inc. Originally this item was meant as an educational tool for adults but quickly became a popular children's toy. The lever on the side of the viewer will rotate the reel one frame at a time once pressed. Item is meant to project reel images on flat white screen

Talking View-Master electronic 3D viewer (view-master)

Item is a grey electronic three-dimensional talking view master. This object comes in its original box with its original instructions. Item takes 4 double A batteries. When reel is inserted, a beep sound plays until the reel is aligned with the first picture. Once the beeping stops, the soundtrack begins and notifies the user when to advance to the next image. Item comes with a cartridge release button on the top right corner, a red lever to switch the image on the top left corner, volume control, earphone jack, AC adaptor plug in and battery cover. Written on box: Operates on four AA batteries, linear tracking tone arm, self-cleaning sapphire needle, constant speed controlled monitor, authentic reproduction of voices and music, brilliant 3-D pictures synchronised with original movie and TV sound tracks.

Toy and promotional cameras

Series contains cameras designed for children or created and distributed as marketing materials for different corporations. These cameras became most popular after the advent of film cartridges, as this greatly simplified the handling and lowered the cost. These cameras are predominantly inexpensive and simply designed, without features that allow the photographer to change aperture or shutter speed.

To browse the individual items in this series, click on the "View the list" link under the "File and item records are available for this series" title (to the right of the page).

Late Victorian cabinet card album

Item is a late Victorian cabinet card album on a metal stand, with slots for 54 photographs and a storage drawer. Album cover is celluloid, wood and velvet and features floral and aviary scenes. Pages are illuminated with a gold, printed floral pattern. Cabinet cards have been removed from the album. The drawer contained 4 postcards (see related materials).

Cavalry (Albumen, Kodak No. 1 print)

Item is a mounted albumen print on paper manufactured by Kodak and likely taken using the Kodak No. 1 camera, which came pre-loaded with film. When all 100 exposures had been made by the consumer, the entire camera was sent back to the Kodak company for prints to be made, and the camera to be reloaded. The Kodak No. 1 produced circular snapshots.
The image depicts a man seated on a horse, surrounded by onlookers with bicycles. Inscription on the reverse reads "Cavalry [illeg] Park West".

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