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Description archivistique
Série organique photographic equipment
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Lenses and lens accessories series

Series contains various photographic lenses and accessories from many manufactures, for use with a variety of camera models. Items include wide-angle, zoom and specialty lenses, along with lens caps and filters.

Early cameras

This series consists of original and duplicate early cameras from the beginning of the history of photography. Based on the basic design of the camera obscura and produced between about 1820 and 1870, these simple devices were usually solid or sliding box cameras with uncomplicated lenses. The shutter was normally outside of the lens, in the form of a lens cap that was simple removed and replaced for exposure, or a rotating metal plate on the front of the lens, which held the aperture. These cameras mainly predated dry plate and flexible film photography, and were used to take Daguerreotype, wet-plate and salted paper photographs.

To browse the individual items in this series, click on the "View the list" link under the "File and item records are available for this series" title (to the right of the page).

Dry plate cameras

This series contains cameras designed for use with commercially manufactured dry plate negatives. Produced between about 1880 and 1900, these cameras began to be marketed to amateur photographers due to the relative ease of using dry plates. Exposure times shortened, necessitating faster shutters, within the lens or camera. The equipment also became more compact, allowing for hand-held photographs.

To browse the individual items in this series, click on the "View the list" link under the "File and item records are available for this series" title (to the right of the page).

Field cameras

This series contains view cameras whose lighter and more compact design, as compared to larger, studio style cameras, allowed for them to be easily transported for use in outdoor settings and for travelling. Alterations like collapsible bellows (folding into either the back of the camera, the front or both), smaller lenses, and folding bodies allowed for the camera to be collapsed for easier movement. The advent of pre-prepared photographic dry plates (and later sheet film). further facilitated landscape and other outdoor photography.

To browse the individual items in this series, click on the "View the list" link under the "File and item records are available for this series" title (to the right of the page).

Folding (bellows) cameras

This series contains cameras designed for roll film and employed a folding design, in which a front flap opened and lens and bellows extended from the camera body. This design balanced the need to produce large sized negatives while making the cameras smaller, and more convenient than the box format cameras. Many were variations on the basic Kodak design that, when folded, resembled a long, flat box with rounded ends. Both brilliant viewfinders and optical direct finders were used in these designs and lenses were generally more advanced than the simple box cameras, with shutter speed and focus adjustments possible.

To browse the individual items in this series, click on the "View the list" link under the "File and item records are available for this series" title (to the right of the page).

Box and snapshot roll film cameras

Series contains simple, snapshot cameras designed for mass public consumption, taking advantage of the new flexible roll film that was developed in 1883. The box camera was a logical follow up from the original simple camera obscuras, often having only one shutter speed, simple lenses with minimal f-stop capabilities and manual winds.

The trend arguably began with George Eastman's in 1888 with the first, amateur, handheld camera, "The Kodak", which came pre-loaded with 100 exposures. After exposure, the entire outfit was returned to the Eastman Kodak company, where the film was developed, prints made and sent back to the customer with the camera, now re-loaded with more film.

Many millions of similar cameras were sold, both high and low end, manufactured by different companies and eventually developing into the modern point-and-shoot camera.

To browse the individual items in this series, click on the "View the list" link under the "File and item records are available for this series" title (to the right of the page).

Detective cameras

Items in this series are photographic devices designed to be inconspicuous, intended for photographers to make candid exposures without the subject being aware. The first detective cameras appeared with the production of commercially available dry plates and designs were simple box camera style constructions. These were, in fact, very similar to standard cameras of the time, but were smaller, handheld and able to make exposures relatively quickly. As smaller, flexible film materials became available, these cameras began to be produced disguised as objects such as pocket watches, ties, books, hats, pens and walking sticks.

To browse the individual items in this series, click on the "View the list" link under the "File and item records are available for this series" title (to the right of the page).

Scovill & Adams Company

Panoramic cameras

Series contains cameras designed to take wide-angle photographs (images that are least twice as wide as they are tall). Cameras of this nature began to be produced soon after photography was invented, as photographers have always wanted to capture large group portraits, landscape views and skylines. Panoramic photographs are achieved by stitching several exposures together to create one image or with purpose built cameras of several designed, including banquet (similar to standard cameras with wider aspect ratios, designed to take photographs of large groups indoors), short rotation (uses a curved film plane, swinging lens and split shutter that the lens rotates around), and full or long rotation (capable of producing 360 degree views by rotating the camera and film past the shutter).

To browse the individual items in this series, click on the "View the list" link under the "File and item records are available for this series" title (to the right of the page).

Miniature and sub-miniature cameras

This series contains cameras designed to take photographs on flexible film sized smaller than 135 format film (24mm x 36mm). The size of the camera also tended to be very small, and often simply designed. While several companies manufactured high quality miniature cameras (including Minox and Rollei), many others were cheaply made and did not produce relatively poor results.

Film formats for miniature cameras were often priority, created by manufactures for their cameras specifically, and included the following sizes: 10mm x 14xx (16mm film), 13mm x 17mm film (110 film cartridges), 14mm x 14mm (used by "Hit" type cameras), 8mm x 11mm cartridge roll film (Minox), 11mm x 8mm disc film (Kodak).

Miniature cameras gained a reputation as "spy" cameras, and while some of the higher quality ones (including the Minox) were used by government agencies, most were simply for surreptitious, amateur use.

To browse the individual items in this series, click on the "View the list" link under the "File and item records are available for this series" title (to the right of the page).

Professional and press cameras

Series contains cameras designed to fulfill specific, professional functions such as surveying, aerial photography, studio portraits and press work. These cameras are often the best items in the manufacturers line, offering more features and a sturdier construction than their amateur counterparts.

To browse the individual items in this series, click on the "View the list" link under the "File and item records are available for this series" title (to the right of the page).

Stereoscopic and multi lens cameras

Series contains cameras that have with more than one lens, to create multiple images on the same light sensitive film or plate. These cameras were designed for several purposes, the most popular being the stereoscopic, or three-dimensional, image. Most stereo cameras work by taking two simultaneous images from slightly varying points of view that correspond to the distance between the human eyes. The images are then mounted side-by-side and viewed through a stereoscope (a system of two lenses that helps to converge the two photographs, to mimic the depth perception of binocular vision). Other three-dimensional cameras used four or more lenses to create images for lenticular prints.
Some multi-lens cameras were intended to create multiple copies of the same scene at one time, such as the gem tintype camera and passport camera, while others had shutters that took sequential shots to create images which show the passage of time on one frame.

To browse the individual items in this series, click on the "View the list" link under the "File and item records are available for this series" title (to the right of the page).

Single lens reflex cameras

Series contains single lens reflex, or simply reflex, cameras. This deign used a mirror at a 45 degree angle to allow the photographer to look through the lens when composing the photograph, therefore seeing exactly what will appear on the film. Brilliant and sports style viewfinders only alllowed an approximation of the image alignment.

To browse the individual items in this series, click on the "View the list" link under the "File and item records are available for this series" title (to the right of the page).

Twin lens reflex cameras

Series contains cameras designed with two identical lenses, mounted one above the other, for composition and the other for exposure. The twin-lens design allows the photographer a continuous view of the subject while photographing, as the 45 degree angled mirror is mounted to the viewing lens only and therefore does not have to list out of the way during exposure, as in single lens reflex designs. Most designs used a waist level viewfinder with a ground glass.

To browse the individual items in this series, click on the "View the list" link under the "File and item records are available for this series" title (to the right of the page).

35mm cameras

Series contains cameras designed for use with standard 35mm (135 format) film. This became the most popular film and camera format, both among professionals and amateurs. Sturdy and multi-functional, with interchangeable lenses, these cameras found their way into civil wars, riots, and natural disasters around the necks of daring photojournalists as well as in homes and on vacation with advanced amateurs and photo-enthusiasts. Once exposed, the film was wound conveniently back into light-tight metal canisters that would protect the film until it could be developed.

For 35mm cameras marketed specifically to amateur photographers, see items in the Point-and-Shoot series.

To browse the individual items in this series, click on the "View the list" link under the "File and item records are available for this series" title (to the right of the page).

In-camera processing (instant) cameras

Series consists of cameras that combine exposure and development in one step to create photographs instantaneously.
While Polaroid is by far the most well known of these cameras, the first patent for instant photography was for the Dubroni, a French wet plate camera, designed so that the glass plate could be sensitized and developed by pouring the chemicals over the plate through a tube in the camera. Later cameras were developed so small tintypes (1895) and direct paper positives (1913) could be made quickly for tourists on busy streets.
But it was the Polaroid Corporation that made instant photography a household item, beginning in 1937 when Edwin Land's young daughter's desire to see her photograph immediately, inspired him to develop the Polaroid's first instant camera: the Land Camera.

The Heritage Collection also contains Kodak Instant Cameras; produced in the late 1970's, they spawned a patent infringement lawsuit from the Polaroid corporation that resulted in the recall all of instant Kodak models sold and the discontinuation of their production.

To browse the individual items in this series, click on the "View the list" link under the "File and item records are available for this series" title (to the right of the page).

Source: <a href="http://www.shutterbug.com/content/it%E2%80%99s-instant%E2%80%94-it%E2%80%99s-not-polaroid-pre-and-post-polaroids-1864-1976">Wade, John. "It's Instant - But It's Not Polaroid: Pre- And-PostPolaroids, From 1864 to 1976." Shutterbug : Published May 1, 2012.</a>

Point and shoot cameras

Series contains mainly inexpensive, fully automatic 35 mm cameras marketed strictly for amateur use. These cameras are the high tech descendants of the box camera and most models have no manual control over focus, aperture, shutter speed, film winding or metering. The viewfinder on point and shoot models is, like the box camera and unlike reflex style cameras, not integrated with the lens; there is no mirror directing the view from the lens to the eye of the photographer. Most of the point and shoot cameras require batteries for operation.

To browse the individual items in this series, click on the "View the list" link under the "File and item records are available for this series" title (to the right of the page).

One-time use cameras

Series contains cameras designed to be disposable. Usually simple, point and shoot cameras made of plastic cases with cardboard housings, these cameras were sold pre-loaded with film and returned to the photofinisher in tact for development. The plastic bodies were often returned to the manufacturer and re-used, with film and housing. Cameras such as this were marketed for travel, weddings, underwater or other situations where a more expensive camera may get damaged. They were available in different film speeds and some models included a flash.

To browse the individual items in this series, click on the "View the list" link under the "File and item records are available for this series" title (to the right of the page).

Digital and pre-digital cameras

Series contains cameras that are designed to capture images using sensors and digital storage media instead of film, as well as pre-digital cameras that combined digital technology with film.
The digital camera replaced the traditional film camera in all but a few niche markets very quickly; as of the beginning of the 21st century, all amateur and most professional photogrpahy now takes place in the digital format. These early cameras track the rapid increase of image quality and camera optinos avilable to the consumer.

To browse the individual items in this series, click on the "View the list" link under the "File and item records are available for this series" title (to the right of the page).

Toy and promotional cameras

Series contains cameras designed for children or created and distributed as marketing materials for different corporations. These cameras became most popular after the advent of film cartridges, as this greatly simplified the handling and lowered the cost. These cameras are predominantly inexpensive and simply designed, without features that allow the photographer to change aperture or shutter speed.

To browse the individual items in this series, click on the "View the list" link under the "File and item records are available for this series" title (to the right of the page).

Motion-picture viewers

Series contains cameras that use film to capture moving images for display. While still image cameras expose one image at a time on photographic film, motion picture cameras take a series of images (or frames) on long strips of film that are then played back using a projector. The speed at which the film is projected matches that which it was taken, a speed (or frame rate) of 24 frames per second was long the standard in the motion picture industry, and is enough to appear to the human eye as motion and not simply a string of still images. Most of the cameras in this series are for amateur or "home movie" use.

To browse the individual items in this series, click on the "View the list" link under the "File and item records are available for this series" title (to the right of the page).

Video cameras

Series contains hand-held, shoulder-mounted, or structurally-attached cameras that use electronic components to record moving images and sound. Most items in this series are for home use. For cameras that record moving images using digital components, see the Digital and Pre-digital cameras series.

To browse the individual items in this series, click on the "View the list" link under the "File and item records are available for this series" title (to the right of the page).

Weisblatt, Betty

Stereoscope Viewers

Series contains stereoscopic viewers, photographic images, and emphera. This includes a wide range of stereoscopes and three-dimensional viewers. Stereoscopes are devices used to view two mounted identical images as a single three-dimensional photograph commonly referred to as stereographs or stereoviews.

The first lens-based, portable stereoscopes were invented by Sir David Brewster in 1849 and presented at Crystal Palace during the London Great Exhibition between 1850 to 1851. Until a decade later when Oliver Wendell Holmes' adaptation of the Brewster stereoscope became the model for all later editions of stereoviewers during the 19th century. Holmes left his invention unpatented. This allowed other manufactures such as H.C. White, Underwood & Underwood and Keystone Viewing Company to mimic his design and increase production of stereoscopes and stereoviews. Ultimately, Holmes' decision would increase production and purchase of his invention.

Stereoscopes and stereo ephemera were meant for educational and entertainment purposes. Designs ranged from various materials like wood and aluminium, stereoscopes also had a large array of shapes and sizes from hand held to table top.

Following the 20th century, three-dimensional viewers became extremely popular. Some major manufactures such as GAF, Sawyer's View-Master and Tru-View produced iconic viewers made from metal, bakelite and other plastics. Originally, viewers and viewer emphera were developed for educational purposes but eventually became marketed as children's entertainment. Unlike stereoscopic viewers that could only look at single card stereoviews, three-dimensional viewers typically rotated black and white or colour transparency reels or multiview cards. Many original companies such as Sawyer's and GAF merged together but maintained the "View-Master" name. In 1989, the view-master brand was sold to Tycho until 1997 when Mattel and Tyco joined together. Now, view-masters are produced under the Fisher-Price title. View-masters were made from various materials and sizes. Some editions included built-in back lighting and sound recordings.

Stereoscopic Cameras

Series consists of 17 cameras designed to take identical images of the same subject from two lenses, approximately 2.5 inches apart or the same distance between human eyes. Cameras are able to make stereo pairs or single images. Cameras in this series range between ca.1850 and ca.1996.

The stereoscope was invented by Charles Wheatstone in 1838 to demonstrate binocular vision and its role in depth perception. Wheatstone used a pair of drawings to show how each eye could see a slight difference in each image, until the single images are superimposed onto each other through a stereoscope, revealing a three-dimensional effect. With the later establishment of photography, creation of Sir David Brewster's portable stereoscope in 1894 and the introduction of the wet-plate collodion process in 1851, did the stereoscopic industry rise to popularity.

Prior to the development of stereo-cameras, a single camera was used to produce either two daguerreotypes or calotypes in succession. The camera would be moved a few inches to one side between exposures in an attempt to produce pictures that looked identical or what was seen by the two eyes. However, this method was based off trial and error, as the quality of the three-dimensional effect might have been compromised by inadequate distance between exposures or alteration of camera angle, subject, and lighting conditions.

The two basic camera types designed to produce stereoscopic pairs are the single-lensed and double-lensed cameras. The double-lensed or binocular cameras allowed photographers to make simultaneous exposures for more accurate stereo photographs. The increasing demand for stereo imagery called for more portable cameras. Field cameras that folded to a compact size enabled photographers to leave the studio and produce stereos outdoors or previously inaccessible places. Later camera designs would have a standard format of 23x 24 mm with a focal length of 35mm and faster shutter speeds.

Photographic equipment and materials series

Series contains 251 photographic materials and equipment donated by Kodak Canada Inc. including cameras, camera accessories, film and paper, photographic viewing and editing equipment, and processing equipment and materials. Objects have been arranged by the above stated categories. Most of the eqiupment and materials originated from the Kodak Canada Heritage Collection Museum, and specific reference to this original intent has been included in the notes and subject fields.

Kodak Canada Inc.

Photographs series

This series contains photographic albums, b&w negatives and prints, colour negatives and prints, colour slides, glass plate negatives and transparencies originating from the Kodak Canada Corporate Archives and Heritage Collection. These materials were used both as forms of documentation of the history of the company at various sites including Kodak Heights, Brampton, Montreal and Vancouver, as well as functioned as a working collection to use for promotional efforts. Highlights include: documentation of the construction of the Kodak Heights site circa 1915 in a series of commissioned albums and loose prints; documentation of the various operations related to the photographic and moving image industry including paper, film, and camera production and processing; marketing campaigns for digital initiatives; and a reference slide collection used by the Kodak Canada Corporation.

Photographic materials have been organized by format and within by the order created when processed in 2005. This arrangement was loosely based on the Kodak Canada's original organization of the files in their archives index. Files of photographs organized by the Kodak Canada Archives Index associated with the collection have been kept together, with the individual file numbers and index titles referenced in the Notes field of each record. Previously assigned reference numbers are indicated in the Archivist's Comments fields.

Kodak Canada Inc.

Published materials

Sub-series consists of textual materials published by Kodak, its subisidiaries, or external publishers between approximately 1891 and 2004. Includes published monographs, product catalogues and price lists, promotional pamphlets and brochures, instructional manuals and reference guides, and annuals and periodicals. Most published materials in the sub-series pertain to the history of Kodak or of photography more generally, Kodak products, photographic techniques and aesthetics, photographic chemistry, and other related topics.

Kodak Canada Inc.