History of technology

Taxonomy

Code

300379378

Scope note(s)

  • Study of the development of technology over time.

Source note(s)

  • Getty Art & Architecture Thesaurus

Display note(s)

Hierarchical terms

History of technology

Equivalent terms

History of technology

  • UF Technology, history of

Associated terms

History of technology

456 Archival description results for History of technology

456 results directly related Exclude narrower terms

Cameras

Sub-series illustrates the production history of the Kodak company's commercial camera production. The collection represents all major styles of medium and small format cameras produced by the company and consists of 171 plate and film cameras, including; box cameras, folding cameras, disposable cameras, range finder cameras, single-lens reflex cameras, twin-lens reflex cameras, ciné cameras, and digital cameras. The cameras are organized chronologically.

Kodak Canada Inc.

Kodak Camera Catalogue, 1935

Catalogue featuring Kodak cameras and accessories availalbe in 1935. Models include: Jiffy Kodak Vest Pocket, Jiffy Kodak, Kodak Junior, Kodak Six-16, Kodak six-20, Kodak Bantam, Kodak 3A Series II, Kodak Recomars, Kodak Vollendas, Kodak Retina, Kodak Duo Six-20, Kodak Brownie, Brownie Junior, Baby Brownie, Cine-Kodak K, Cine-Kodak Eight.

Kodak Canada Inc.

Kodak Camera Catalogue, 1938

Catalogue featuring Kodak cameras and accessories availalbe in 1938. Models include: Jiffy Kodak Vest Pocket, Jiffy Kodak, Kodak Junior, Jiffy Kodak Six-16 series II, Jiffy Kodak six-20 series II, Kodak Bantam, Kodak 3A Series II, Kodak Recomar 18, Kodak Recormar 33, Kodak Vollendas, Kodak Retina I, Kodak Retina II, Kodak Junior Six-16 series III, Kodak Junior Six-20 series III, Kodak Senior six-16, Kodak Senior six-20, Kodak Special six-16, Kodak Special six-20, Super Kodak six-20, Kodak Duo Six-20 Series II, Kodak Bantam Special, Six-16 Brownie Junior, Six-20, Bullet, Six-20 Bull's-Eye.

Kodak Canada Inc.

Kodak Camera Catalogue, 1939

Catalogue featuring Kodak cameras and accessories availalbe in 1938. Models include: Jiffy Kodak Vest Pocket, Jiffy Kodak, Kodak Junior, Jiffy Kodak Six-16 series II, Jiffy Kodak six-20 series II, Kodak Bantam, Kodak 3A Series II, Kodak Recomar 18, Kodak Recormar 33, Kodak Vollendas, Kodak Retina I, Kodak Retina II, Kodak Junior Six-16 series III, Kodak Junior Six-20 series III, Kodak Senior six-16, Kodak Senior six-20, Kodak Special six-16, Kodak Special six-20, Super Kodak six-20, Kodak Duo Six-20 Series II, Kodak Bantam Special, Six-16 Brownie Junior, Six-20, Bullet, Six-20 Bull's-Eye, Kodak 35.

Kodak Canada Inc.

Philips Magicubes

Item consists of a 12 pack of Philips Magicubes. They introduced in 1970 as an improvement on flashcubes. As oppsed to being fired electrically by batteries, they were fired mechanically by a small bar striking a pin coated in fulminating material. This advancement made cheap flash cameras possible. They were used in cameras such as the Kodak Instamatic and the Agfa Autostar X-126, among others.

Image Arts

Various flash bulbs

Flash bulbs in boxes (PT11)
3 boxes GE Twelve M2B Flashbulbs
2 boxes GE Flashcubes
2 boxes GE MagiCubes
1 box GE Super Cubes
3 boxes AG-1B Flashbulbs
1 box GE PH/SM Photoflash lamps
1 GE Photoflash 22
1 GE Lamp
1 box GE Synchro-Press 5B Photoflash
2 GE projection lamp
1 box GE 5B flashbulbs
1 box GE number 6 sure-fire flash bulbs

Flashbulbs in Boxes (PT11)
1 box Sylvania Flashbulbs M2B blue dot
1 box Sylvania Flashbulbs M3B blue dot
1 package Amplex photoflash type 5
2 boxes Sylvania blue dot Magicubes
1 box Sylvania blue dot flashcubes
1 box Diramic Flip Flash super 10
1 package Philips topflash
1 package GE Flip Flash II
1 box Sylvania Superflash M25
1 box GE M3 flashbulbs (box only)
1 box Westinghouse M2B
1 box Westinghouse M2 clear
1 box Sylvania Light Bulb
1 box Westinghouse Photoflash bulbs
1 Rollei projector bulb
1 box Sylvania Superflash class M
1 Wabash Photolamp Corp. No. 0 Super Flash photolamp
1 GE Flip Flash II (no box)
1 Sylvania Flash Bar (no box)

Unsorted loose bulbs (PT12)
3 sylvania Wabash Superflash No. 2
4 Phillips PF5
1 GE Lucalox LU150/55
1 GE 6
2 Phillips Photoflux
1 GE Photo Flash no. 22
1 GE Edison Maza Photoflash no. 22
2Sylvania P25
1 Phillips PF 1/97
3 Sylvania M-2 (Blue dot)
1 unknown
1 unknown blue dot flash bulb
1 Westinghouse photoflash 11
2 unknown medium blue dot flash bulb
2 Sylvania M-25
1 GE ELN. No. 113
1 GE SM 2
3 GE flashcube
4 GE Magicube
4 Sylvania Blue Dot Magicube
1 ITT Flashcube
1 small Westinghouse frosted
1 small GE frosted
1 small GE
1 Phillips PF 1
1 Philips PP 1R
1 Phillips PP 1
1 AG 1 flashbulb
1 blue AG3B flashbulb

Various flash attachments

1 - 1 Kodak Instant Flash Model A
2 - 1 Brownie Flasholder for Brownie Reflex Camera
3 - 1 Lumex Dual B.C. flashgun
4 - 1 Dimension 32 flashgun
5 - 1 Secord BC type fan flashgun
6 - 1 Minicam Synchron flasholder
7 - 1 Kodalite Flasholder Lumaclad Reflector
8 - 1 Anglo fan flasgun
9 - 1 Kobold fan flasgun
10 - 1 Vivitar RS-1 remote sensor
11 - 1 Ilford Sportslite fan flasgun
12 - 1 Lumex Dual B.C. Flashgun
13 - 1 R. & H. fan flashgun
14 - Sunset Super Deluxe model 1500 BC Bounce Gun
15 - Polaroid Wink LIght Flasher 256
16 - Alpex Deluxe Swivel Flash Gun B.C. type
17 - Agfa Tilly flash gun

Wooden shutter

Item is a wooden time shutter that could be mounted on any plate camera. Is still functional. The spring wound mechanism oerates a sil curtain to open and close.

Canon BC-60N Battery Charger

Item consists of a Canon BC-60N battery charger. It has an input of AC 120V 60Hz 110mA, and an output of DC 12V 350mA. There are two lights on the top to indicate if the battery is charging or if the charge is complete.

Image Arts

Assorted camera filters

Item contains the following filters:

1 Olympus 55mm Skylight 1A
1 Fuji Film Light Balancing Filter A2 for Fujica Single-8
1 Kodak Series VII Daylight Filter for Type A film
1 Kodak Series VI color compensating filter CC-10M
1 Kodak Series VI yello color filter
1 Omag filter 40
1 Canon close up lens uv filter 72mm 1100
1 Kenko LBW10 49 orange filter
1 Kodak #2 yellow filter (glass only)
1 Kodak Series VI Kodachrome Haze filter
1 Kodak #13 Close-up attachment
1 Kodak Series V Wratten Filter
1 Kodak Wrattan filter # 54 B
1 Kodak series VI adapter ring 31.5mm
1 Kodak Series 4 daylight filter for type A color films No. 85
1 Kodak Close-up attachment No. 6A
1 Kodak Series VI adapter ring 31.5mm with UV filter
1 Kodak Series V wratten filter A
1 Kodak orange filter, glass only
1 Kodak cloud filter No. 13
1 Kodak Series 5 daylight filter for type F color film
1 Kodak Series 6 Skylight filter No. 1A
1 Kodak Series VI Wratten filter No. 85B
1 Hoya 40.5 85B
1 walz UV filter
1 EdnaLite filter 514
1 EdnaLite filter 601
1 Voigtlander G1/37 mm
1 Walz red filter for Argus C-3
1 Walz #112 1A filter
1 Kodak Series VI color compensating filter CC-05M
1 Kodak Series VI color compensating filter CC-10C
1 Eumig Makro filter
1 Zeiss Ikon 351/6 graduated yellow filter
1 Carl Zeiss Jena Proxar 0.67 x 37
1 Zeiss Ikon 988/12 yellow filter
1 Sharplite optical filters Type A 21.5
1 Harrison corrector disc
1 Minolta color filter set for Minolta-16 II
1 Polaroid light polarizing series VI filter
1 Kodak Wratten gelatin No. 1A Skylight filter
1 Lee filters sample set
1 roscolene filter sample set
1 Minolta filter set
1 Canon 72mm No. 4x
1 Zeiss Ikon Contapol 4x polarizing filter
1 No. 1 58mm filter
1 Kodak series VI wrattan filter A red filter
1 Aroma 55mm No. 2 filter
1 Optex 52mm UV filtre
1 1 m - 40" filter
1 2 m - 80"
1 Tiffen 49mm Hazan filter
1 B+W 50mm ES 101 filter
2 Toshiba 52mm SL-1A filter
1 Kodak series V adapter ring 25.5mm with series V wrattan filter no. 85 B
1 Sepia filter (glass only)
1 Kodak FIV/32 -1.5 L=3x orange filter
1 Lifa Tagesslicht
1 red filter (glass only)
1 Impakt 1A 55mm filter
1 Toshiba 52mm SL-1A
1 yellow filter (glass only)
1 Tiffen 67mm 80 B blue filter
1 Toshiba 72mm SL-1A filter
1 set of Crown 52mm close up filters
1 Utilo filter Wratten K-2 No. 8 yellow filter
1 set Kodak Cmbinaion filter series VI

Carl Zeiss S-Planar 1:2.8 60mm

Item is a lens composed of 6 elements in 4 groups with a picture angle of 39 degrees. The distance scale is graduated in meters and feet up to 0.6 m and 2 feet. The aperture scale is 2.8 to 22 with a fully automatic aperture diaphragm. The lens is manufactured by Kyocera Corporation under the Contax brand name.

Bouncemaster

A Very sophisticated flash gun with folded circular reflector, exposure slide rule, and test lamp. Allows setting for open flash (reflector folded). It can use two sizes of flash bulbs. Battery is a Mallory M505 - 22.5 volts. The reflector can tilt 90 degrees upward. PC camera cord is missing. The letters E. B. are visible above the hot shoe.

Accura

Nikkor 24mm 1:2.8 lens

Item is a lens is composed of 9 elements in 7 groups with a picture angle of 84 degrees at infinity. The distance scale is graduated in meters and feet up to 0.3 m and 1 foot. The aperture scale is 2.8 to 22 with a fully automatic aperture diaphragm. The item comes with a Toshiba 52mm sl-1a filter,front and rear caps, and a rubbe lens hood.

Nikkor-S.C auto 1:1.4 f=50mm

Item is a lens, first introduced in 1962, which became the most popular lens manufactured by Nikon with 4 million being produced. The lens is composed of seven elements in five groups with a picture angle of 46 degrees at infinity. The distance scale is graduated in meters and feet up to 0.6 m and 2 feet. The aperture scale is 1.4 to 16 with a fully automatic aperture diaphragm. The item comes with a Toshiba 52mm sl-1a filter and front and rear caps.

Early cameras

This series consists of original and duplicate early cameras from the beginning of the history of photography. Based on the basic design of the camera obscura and produced between about 1820 and 1870, these simple devices were usually solid or sliding box cameras with uncomplicated lenses. The shutter was normally outside of the lens, in the form of a lens cap that was simple removed and replaced for exposure, or a rotating metal plate on the front of the lens, which held the aperture. These cameras mainly predated dry plate and flexible film photography, and were used to take Daguerreotype, wet-plate and salted paper photographs.

To browse the individual items in this series, click on the "View the list" link under the "File and item records are available for this series" title (to the right of the page).

Field cameras

This series contains view cameras whose lighter and more compact design, as compared to larger, studio style cameras, allowed for them to be easily transported for use in outdoor settings and for travelling. Alterations like collapsible bellows (folding into either the back of the camera, the front or both), smaller lenses, and folding bodies allowed for the camera to be collapsed for easier movement. The advent of pre-prepared photographic dry plates (and later sheet film). further facilitated landscape and other outdoor photography.

To browse the individual items in this series, click on the "View the list" link under the "File and item records are available for this series" title (to the right of the page).

No. 3 Autographic Brownie Model H

Item consists of a Kodak No. 3 Autographic folding camera, model H. Camera has a brilliant viewfinder and black leather covering. It uses type A118 autographic film rolls to make 6 exposures of 3.125 x 4.25 in (8 x 10.5 cm). This camera has a Kodak Ball Bearing shutter and Kodak antistigmat f7.7, 130mm lens with an aperture scale from f7.7 to 45. The shutter has speeds of B, T, 1/25, 1/50 and 1/100 sec. The bellows are adjusted to focus and have a pointer on a 6 to 100 feet scale. The brilliant viewfinder folds out with the bellows and can be flipped between vertical and horizontal shots.

Box and snapshot roll film cameras

Series contains simple, snapshot cameras designed for mass public consumption, taking advantage of the new flexible roll film that was developed in 1883. The box camera was a logical follow up from the original simple camera obscuras, often having only one shutter speed, simple lenses with minimal f-stop capabilities and manual winds.

The trend arguably began with George Eastman's in 1888 with the first, amateur, handheld camera, "The Kodak", which came pre-loaded with 100 exposures. After exposure, the entire outfit was returned to the Eastman Kodak company, where the film was developed, prints made and sent back to the customer with the camera, now re-loaded with more film.

Many millions of similar cameras were sold, both high and low end, manufactured by different companies and eventually developing into the modern point-and-shoot camera.

To browse the individual items in this series, click on the "View the list" link under the "File and item records are available for this series" title (to the right of the page).

No. 1A Gift Kodak

Item consists of a No. 1A Gift Kodak folding camera. This was a special version of the No. 1A Pocket Kodak Junior camera with an early Art Deco design by industrial designer Walter Dorwin Teague to target a female market audience. The camera has a genuine brown leather trim with metal decorations on the door and faceplate on the shutter. It is a fixed focus model that uses type 116 roll film to take 2.50 x 4.25 inch exposures and has a meniscus achromatic lens. The camera can take instantaneous exposures and time exposures depending on the setting. This gift model was originally priced at $15.00.

Detective cameras

Items in this series are photographic devices designed to be inconspicuous, intended for photographers to make candid exposures without the subject being aware. The first detective cameras appeared with the production of commercially available dry plates and designs were simple box camera style constructions. These were, in fact, very similar to standard cameras of the time, but were smaller, handheld and able to make exposures relatively quickly. As smaller, flexible film materials became available, these cameras began to be produced disguised as objects such as pocket watches, ties, books, hats, pens and walking sticks.

To browse the individual items in this series, click on the "View the list" link under the "File and item records are available for this series" title (to the right of the page).

Scovill & Adams Company

Panoramic cameras

Series contains cameras designed to take wide-angle photographs (images that are least twice as wide as they are tall). Cameras of this nature began to be produced soon after photography was invented, as photographers have always wanted to capture large group portraits, landscape views and skylines. Panoramic photographs are achieved by stitching several exposures together to create one image or with purpose built cameras of several designed, including banquet (similar to standard cameras with wider aspect ratios, designed to take photographs of large groups indoors), short rotation (uses a curved film plane, swinging lens and split shutter that the lens rotates around), and full or long rotation (capable of producing 360 degree views by rotating the camera and film past the shutter).

To browse the individual items in this series, click on the "View the list" link under the "File and item records are available for this series" title (to the right of the page).

Miniature and sub-miniature cameras

This series contains cameras designed to take photographs on flexible film sized smaller than 135 format film (24mm x 36mm). The size of the camera also tended to be very small, and often simply designed. While several companies manufactured high quality miniature cameras (including Minox and Rollei), many others were cheaply made and did not produce relatively poor results.

Film formats for miniature cameras were often priority, created by manufactures for their cameras specifically, and included the following sizes: 10mm x 14xx (16mm film), 13mm x 17mm film (110 film cartridges), 14mm x 14mm (used by "Hit" type cameras), 8mm x 11mm cartridge roll film (Minox), 11mm x 8mm disc film (Kodak).

Miniature cameras gained a reputation as "spy" cameras, and while some of the higher quality ones (including the Minox) were used by government agencies, most were simply for surreptitious, amateur use.

To browse the individual items in this series, click on the "View the list" link under the "File and item records are available for this series" title (to the right of the page).

Minolta 16EE II

Item is a subminiature camera with wrist strap. The Lens is a Rokkor F2.8/25mm, shutter speeds H (high) and L (low). Auto exposure, coupled shutter metering.

McKoewn Pg. 682

Professional and press cameras

Series contains cameras designed to fulfill specific, professional functions such as surveying, aerial photography, studio portraits and press work. These cameras are often the best items in the manufacturers line, offering more features and a sturdier construction than their amateur counterparts.

To browse the individual items in this series, click on the "View the list" link under the "File and item records are available for this series" title (to the right of the page).

Stereoscopic and multi lens cameras

Series contains cameras that have with more than one lens, to create multiple images on the same light sensitive film or plate. These cameras were designed for several purposes, the most popular being the stereoscopic, or three-dimensional, image. Most stereo cameras work by taking two simultaneous images from slightly varying points of view that correspond to the distance between the human eyes. The images are then mounted side-by-side and viewed through a stereoscope (a system of two lenses that helps to converge the two photographs, to mimic the depth perception of binocular vision). Other three-dimensional cameras used four or more lenses to create images for lenticular prints.
Some multi-lens cameras were intended to create multiple copies of the same scene at one time, such as the gem tintype camera and passport camera, while others had shutters that took sequential shots to create images which show the passage of time on one frame.

To browse the individual items in this series, click on the "View the list" link under the "File and item records are available for this series" title (to the right of the page).

Single lens reflex cameras

Series contains single lens reflex, or simply reflex, cameras. This deign used a mirror at a 45 degree angle to allow the photographer to look through the lens when composing the photograph, therefore seeing exactly what will appear on the film. Brilliant and sports style viewfinders only alllowed an approximation of the image alignment.

To browse the individual items in this series, click on the "View the list" link under the "File and item records are available for this series" title (to the right of the page).

Asahi Pentax 6 x 7

Item is a professional medium format single lens reflex camera for 6 x 7 cm images on 120 or 220 roll film. This camera has a design similar to a 35mm camera with interchangeable Takumar lenses and range finders. It has a Penta Prism viewfinder, a wooden handle and a Takumar 6 x 7 1 :3.5 55 mm wide angle lens.

Twin lens reflex cameras

Series contains cameras designed with two identical lenses, mounted one above the other, for composition and the other for exposure. The twin-lens design allows the photographer a continuous view of the subject while photographing, as the 45 degree angled mirror is mounted to the viewing lens only and therefore does not have to list out of the way during exposure, as in single lens reflex designs. Most designs used a waist level viewfinder with a ground glass.

To browse the individual items in this series, click on the "View the list" link under the "File and item records are available for this series" title (to the right of the page).

In-camera processing (instant) cameras

Series consists of cameras that combine exposure and development in one step to create photographs instantaneously.
While Polaroid is by far the most well known of these cameras, the first patent for instant photography was for the Dubroni, a French wet plate camera, designed so that the glass plate could be sensitized and developed by pouring the chemicals over the plate through a tube in the camera. Later cameras were developed so small tintypes (1895) and direct paper positives (1913) could be made quickly for tourists on busy streets.
But it was the Polaroid Corporation that made instant photography a household item, beginning in 1937 when Edwin Land's young daughter's desire to see her photograph immediately, inspired him to develop the Polaroid's first instant camera: the Land Camera.

The Heritage Collection also contains Kodak Instant Cameras; produced in the late 1970's, they spawned a patent infringement lawsuit from the Polaroid corporation that resulted in the recall all of instant Kodak models sold and the discontinuation of their production.

To browse the individual items in this series, click on the "View the list" link under the "File and item records are available for this series" title (to the right of the page).

Source: <a href="http://www.shutterbug.com/content/it%E2%80%99s-instant%E2%80%94-it%E2%80%99s-not-polaroid-pre-and-post-polaroids-1864-1976">Wade, John. "It's Instant - But It's Not Polaroid: Pre- And-PostPolaroids, From 1864 to 1976." Shutterbug : Published May 1, 2012.</a>

Polaroid Land Camera, model 95a

Item is a variant of the Polaroid Land Camera model 95, and features a 3 element, 135mm f/11 lens, a 4 speed rotary-leaf shutter system with speeds 1/8 to 1/60 seconds. Used black & white 40 series 100 ISO instant roll film with a sepia tone.

Polaroid Corporation

Kodak Pleaser

Item is a Kodak Pleaser. It is an instant camera with a 100mm f/12.7 lens, a shutter with speeds of 1/15-1/300s, and electronic exposure. It used film type PR 10 (PR144) for a picture size of 67 x 91mm. Picture ejection is by the crank on the right hand of the camera. The concept behind this unique-looking camera was to make instant photography as inexpensive and accessible as possible so that consumers might switch from Polaroid to Kodak.

Canadian Kodak Co., Limited

Polaroid Land Model 104 outfit case

Item is a Polaroid Land Camera Automatic 104 outfit case. It is in a black hard leather case lined with red curduroy also containing the Polaroid flash model 268, 2 packs of Polaroid print mounts and 3 Polaroid envelopes for ordering prints, enlargements, and accessories. The camera is a folding bellows instand camera with automatic exposure that used 100-series Packfilm. It has a 2 element plastic lens and a non-folding zone focusing system. It retailed for $60 when it was first released.

Polaroid Corporation

Pleaser II Kodamatic

Item is a Kodak Pleaser. It is an instant 'handle' camera with a 100mm f/12.8 lens, a shutter with speeds of 2-1/300s, and electronic exposure. It used film type HS144 for a picture size of 67 x 91mm. Picture ejection is by the crank on the right hand of the camera. The concept behind this unique-looking camera was to make instant photography as inexpensive and accessible as possible so that consumers might switch from Polaroid to Kodak. It is the second of the Pleaser models and has a two-tone brown plastic body.

Canadian Kodak Co., Limited

Polaroid Highlander, model 80A

Item is a Polaroid Highlander Land Camera, model 80A. It is a folding instant camera with a 100mm f8.8 3-element glass lens a 2-speed rotary leaf shutter design with speeds of 1/23s and 1/100s, a Polaroid hot shoe flash, rigid viewfinder, painted steel body, chrome plated trim, exposure set by Polaroid Light Value scale, and a rotating lens front-element for distance focus. It is in a leather case also containing the manual.

Polaroid Corporation

Kodak Colorburst 250

Item is a Kodak Colorburst 250. It is an instant camera with a f/1:12.8 100mm lens, electronic flash, and a 2-1/300 secound shutter with motorized picture output. It used Kodak PR-10 instant film. It was first sold in July 1979.

Canadian Kodak Co., Limited

Polaroid AutoFocus 660

Item consists of a camera for use with the Polaroid 600 cartridge system diffusion transfer film, which had a faster ISO (600) rating than the earlier SX-70 film. The camera was released in 1982, and consists of a moulded black plastic body and features a sonar auto-focus system.

Polaroid Corporation

Point and shoot cameras

Series contains mainly inexpensive, fully automatic 35 mm cameras marketed strictly for amateur use. These cameras are the high tech descendants of the box camera and most models have no manual control over focus, aperture, shutter speed, film winding or metering. The viewfinder on point and shoot models is, like the box camera and unlike reflex style cameras, not integrated with the lens; there is no mirror directing the view from the lens to the eye of the photographer. Most of the point and shoot cameras require batteries for operation.

To browse the individual items in this series, click on the "View the list" link under the "File and item records are available for this series" title (to the right of the page).

Fujifilm Instax 100 (instant camera)

Item consists of a camera for use with the proprietary FujiFilm diffusion transfer film (Instax) with an image size of 9.9 x 6.2 cm. The camera body is blue and black plastic, with built-in flash and Fujinon 95mm lens. A control panel on the back of the camera controls focusing, flash and exposure, and displays remaining exposures.

Fuji Photo Film Co., Ltd.

Nikon Zoom 300 AF

Item is a battery operated automatic point and shoot camera for photographs on 35 mm camera. Black, plastic body with Nikon Zoom Lens 35-70mm macro.

Ricoh XF-30

Item is an automatic, battery operated, 35mm camera with Rikenon 1:4, F35 lens and pop-up flash.

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